Total U.S. Population Count: 7,239,881.
The Census of Population and Housing tables are not available online. A Business/Economic census was taken that same year and is available from:
As set out in the Constitution, the Congress wrote the law directing that the census be taken through "an actual inquiry at every dwelling house, or of the head of every family within each district", and took the steps necessary to enact that law, including specifying what information was to be gathered. (Census Act of 1810)
In 1810, the Census was taken of the "several districts of the United States" (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, connecticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, East Tennessee, West Tennessee, Ohio, ), the District of Columbia" and the Mississippi territory, the Indiana territory, the Michigan territory, the Illinois territory, the Louisiana territory, and the Orleans territory.
The census schedules (the actual written records of information from each household) were, by legal mandate, posted in "two of the most public places within [each jurisdiction] there to remain for the inspection of all concerned..." There were no forms for this Census. Each Census taker created his own schedule format.
A complete set of the schedules, along with summary data for the counties, and, in some areas, for the towns, was filed with the State Department. In 1812, when the British burned the Capitol during the war, the schedules from many of the states were destroyed. Copies had also been filed with District Courts, but many of those had been lost over the years. The records are not complete.
Remaining records are in the United States National Archives. To view microfilm of released census schedules (all schedules more than 72 years old) contact the regional NARA center at Laguna Niguel. Digitized versions can be accessed through Ancestry.com.
Get Ancestry.com link from http://search.ancestry.com/search/grouplist.aspx?group=usfedcen#databases
Further information on the first census can be found in Heads of Families at the First Census 1790: Records of the State Enumerations: 1782-1785.