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Procrastination in Academics: Scholarly Bibliography

Strategies and inspiration to work with procrastination.


The following citations were found using Ebsco's platform of PsycInfo and the descriptor query: DE "Procrastination"

then limiting to scholarly articles, in English, a subject major heading of "college students," and a date span of 2011-2021.


Afzal, S., & Jami, H. (2018). Prevalence of academic procrastination and reasons for academic procrastination in university students. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 28(1), 51–69.

Ariani, D. W., & Susilo, Y. S. (2018). Why do it later? Goal orientation, self-efficacy, test anxiety, on procrastination. Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies, 17, 45–73.

Aznar-Díaz, I., Romero-Rodríguez, J.-M., García-González, A., & Ramírez-Montoya, M.-S. (2020). Mexican and Spanish university students’ Internet addiction and academic procrastination: Correlation and potential factors. PLoS ONE, 15(5).

Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2017). Gender differences in the relationship between academic procrastination, satifaction [sic] with academic life and academic performance. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 15(1), 105–125.

Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2018). Procrastination, self‐downing, self‐doubt, and rational beliefs: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 96(2), 187–196.

Barutçu Yıldırım, F., & Demir, A. (2020). Self-handicapping among university students: The role of procrastination, test anxiety, self-esteem, and self-compassion. Psychological Reports, 123(3), 825–843.

Brandy, J. M., Kessler, T. A., & Grabarek, C. H. (2018). A grounded theory investigation into sophomore students’ recall of depression during their freshman year in college: A pilot study. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(9), 44–50.

Burnam, A., Komarraju, M., Hamel, R., & Nadler, D. R. (2014). Do adaptive perfectionism and self-determined motivation reduce academic procrastination? Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 165–172.

Cerino, E. S. (2014). Relationships between academic motivation, self-efficacy, and academic procrastination. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19(4), 156–163.

Chen, B.-B. (2019). Academic procrastination and bedtime among Chinese undergraduates: The indirect and moderating effects of sensation seeking and goal disengagement. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 38(1), 187–193.

Chen, B.-B., & Chang, L. (2016). Procrastination as a fast life history strategy. Evolutionary Psychology, 14(1), 1–5.

Chow, H. P. H. (2011). Procrastination among undergraduate students: Effects of emotional intelligence, school life, self-evaluation, and self- efficacy. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 57(2), 234–240.

Closson, L. M., & Bond, T. A. (2019). Social network site use and university adjustment. Educational Psychology, 39(8), 1027–1046.

Codina, N., Valenzuela, R., Pestana, J. V., & Gonzalez-Conde, J. (2018). Relations between student procrastination and teaching styles: Autonomy-supportive and controlling. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Corkin, D. M., Yu, S. L., Wolters, C. A., & Wiesner, M. (2014). The role of the college classroom climate on academic procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 294–303.

Dominguez-Lara, S., Prada-Chapoñan, R., & Moreta-Herrera, R. (2019). Gender differences in the influence of personality on academic procrastination in Peruvian college students. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 22(2), 137–147.

Dryden, W., & Sabelus, S. (2012). The perceived credibility of two rational emotive behavior therapy rationales for the treatment of academic procrastination. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(1), 1–24.

Durak, H. Y. (2020). Cyberloafing in learning environments where online social networking sites are used as learning tools: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(3), 539–569.

Eckert, M., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D., Sieland, B., & Berking, M. (2016). Overcome procrastination: Enhancing emotion regulation skills reduce procrastination. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 10–18.

Ferrari, J. R., Crum, K. P., & Pardo, M. A. (2018). Decisional procrastination: Assessing characterological and contextual variables around indecision. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 37(2), 436–440.

Gagnon, J., Dionne, F., & Pychyl, T. A. (2016). Committed action: An initial study on its association to procrastination in academic settings. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 5(2), 97–102.

Ganesan, R., Bt Mamat, N. H., Mellor, D., Rizzuto, L., & Kolar, C. (2014). Procrastination and the 2×2 achievement goal framework in Malaysian undergraduate students. Psychology in the Schools, 51(5), 506–516.

Gareau, A., Chamandy, M., Kljajic, K., & Gaudreau, P. (2019). The detrimental effect of academic procrastination on subsequent grades: The mediating role of coping over and above past achievement and working memory capacity. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 32(2), 141–154.

Garzón-Umerenkova, A., de la Fuente, J., Amate, J., Paoloni, P. V., Fadda, S., & Pérez, J. F. (2018). A linear empirical model of self-regulation on flourishing, health, procrastination, and achievement, among university students. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Glick, D. M., & Orsillo, S. M. (2015). An investigation of the efficacy of acceptance-based behavioral therapy for academic procrastination. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(2), 400–409.

Goroshit, M., & Hen, M. (2021). Academic procrastination and academic performance: Do learning disabilities matter? Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 40(5), 2490–2498.

Häfner, A., Oberst, V., & Stock, A. (2014). Avoiding procrastination through time management: An experimental intervention study. Educational Studies, 40(3), 352–360.

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2020). The effects of decisional and academic procrastination on students’ feelings toward academic procrastination. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 39(2), 556–563.

Hensley, L. C. (2014). Reconsidering active procrastination: Relations to motivation and achievement in college anatomy. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 157–164.

Hensley, L. C. (2016). The draws and drawbacks of college students’ active procrastination. Journal of College Student Development, 57(4), 465–471.

Hensley, L. C., & Cutshall, E. L. (2018). Procrastinating in college: Students’ readiness and resistance to change. Journal of College Student Development, 59(4), 498–504.

Jin, H., Wang, W., & Lan, X. (2019). Peer attachment and academic procrastination in Chinese college students: A moderated mediation model of future time perspective and grit. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Johnson, P. E. Jr., Perrin, C. J., Salo, A., Deschaine, E., & Johnson, B. (2016). Use of an explicit rule decreases procrastination in university students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49(2), 346–358.

Kaftan, O. J., & Freund, A. M. (2019). A motivational perspective on academic procrastination: Goal focus affects how students perceive activities while procrastinating. Motivation Science, 5(2), 135–156.

Kennedy, G. J., & Tuckman, B. W. (2013). An exploration into the influence of academic and social values, procrastination, and perceived school belongingness on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 16(3), 435–470.

Kim, E., & Seo, E. H. (2013). The relationship of flow and self-regulated learning to active procrastination. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 41(7), 1099–1113.

Ko, C.-Y. A., & Chang, Y. (2019). Investigating the relationships among resilience, social anxiety, and procrastination in a sample of college students. Psychological Reports, 122(1), 231–245.

Mahasneh, A. M., Bataineh, O. T., & Al-Zoubi, Z. H. (2016). The relationship between academic procrastination and parenting styles among Jordanian undergraduate university students. The Open Psychology Journal, 9.

Mahoney, A. (2017). A comparison of escalating versus fixed reinforcement schedules on undergraduate quiz taking. Journal of Behavioral Education, 26(3), 264–276.

Martinčeková, L., & Enright, R. D. (2020). The effects of self-forgiveness and shame-proneness on procrastination: Exploring the mediating role of affect. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 39(2), 428–437.

Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Meltzer, C. E. (2016). “Facebocrastination”? Predictors of using Facebook for procrastination and its effects on students’ well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 65–76.

Meier, A., Reinecke, L., & Meltzer, C. E. (2017). “‘Facebocrastination’? Predictors of using Facebook for procrastination and its effects on students” well-being’: Corrigendum. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 601–601.

Merett, F. N., Bzuneck, J. A., de Oliveira, K. L., & Rufini, S. É. (2020). University students profiles of self-regulated learning and motivation. Estudos de Psicologia, 37.

Montgomery, S., Gregg, D. H., Somers, C. L., Pernice-Duca, F., Hoffman, A., & Beeghly, M. (2019). Intrapersonal variables associated with academic adjustment in United States college students. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 38(1), 40–49.

Morris, P. E., & Fritz, C. O. (2015). Conscientiousness and procrastination predict academic coursework marks rather than examination performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 39, 193–198.

Nordby, K., Klingsieck, K. B., & Svartdal, F. (2017). Do procrastination-friendly environments make students delay unnecessarily? Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 20(3), 491–512.

Odaci, H. (2011). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination as predictors of problematic internet use in university students. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1109–1113.

Patrzek, J., Grunschel, C., & Fries, S. (2012). Academic procrastination: The perspective of university counsellors. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 34(3), 185–201.

Perrin, C. J., Miller, N., Haberlin, A. T., Ivy, J. W., Meindl, J. N., & Neef, N. A. (2011). Measuring and reducing college students’ procrastination. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(3), 463–474.

Przepiorka, A. M., Blachnio, A., & Díaz-Morales, J. F. (2019). I will do it tomorrow! Exploring the dimensionality of procrastination in Poland. Time & Society, 28(1), 415–437.

Rahimi, S., Hall, N. C., & Pychyl, T. A. (2016). Attributions of responsibility and blame for procrastination behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.

Rice, K. G., Richardson, C. M. E., & Clark, D. (2012). Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(2), 288–302.

Saleem, M., & Rafique, R. (2012). Procrastination and self-esteem among university students. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9(3), 50–53.

Scent, C. L., & Boes, S. R. (2014). Acceptance and commitment training: A brief intervention to reduce procrastination among college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 28(2), 144–156.

Seo, E. H. (2011). The relationships among procrastination, flow, and academic achievement. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(2), 209–218.

Seo, E. H. (2012). Cramming, active procrastination, and academic achievement. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 40(8), 1333–1340.

Smyth, L., Mavor, K. I., & Gray, L. R. (2019). Not just who you are, but who you were before: Social identification, identity incompatibility, and performance‐undermining learning behaviour in higher education. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 29(6), 474–491.

Soysa, C. K., & Weiss, A. (2014). Mediating perceived parenting styles–test anxiety relationships: Academic procrastination and maladaptive perfectionism. Learning and Individual Differences, 34, 77–85.

Sumaya, I. C., & Darling, E. (2018). Procrastination, flow, and academic performance in real time using the experience sampling method. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 179(3), 123–131.

Tani, K. (2017). Academic procrastination and the effect on students’ results for ICT students. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 7(2), 31–35.

Theiss, J. D., Hobbs, W. B., Giordano, P. J., & Brunson, O. M. (2014). Undergraduate consent form reading in relation to conscientiousness, procrastination, and the point-of-time effect. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 9(3), 11–17.

Wessel, J., Bradley, G. L., & Hood, M. (2019). Comparing effects of active and passive procrastination: A field study of behavioral delay. Personality and Individual Differences, 139, 152–157.

Westgate, E. C., Wormington, S. V., Oleson, K. C., & Lindgren, K. P. (2017). Productive procrastination: Academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 47(3), 124–135.

Wolters, C. A., & Benzon, M. B. (2013). Assessing and predicting college students’ use of strategies for the self-regulation of motivation. Journal of Experimental Education, 81(2), 199–221.

Wolters, C. A., Won, S., & Hussain, M. (2017). Examining the relations of time management and procrastination within a model of self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 12(3), 381–399.

Yang, Z., Asbury, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2019). An exploration of problematic smartphone use among Chinese university students: Associations with academic anxiety, academic procrastination, self-regulation and subjective wellbeing. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17(3), 596–614.

Zhou, M. (2019). The role of personality traits and need for cognition in active procrastination. Acta Psychologica, 199.

Zhu, L., Meng, D., Ma, X., Guo, J., & Mu, L. (2020). Sleep timing and hygiene practices of high bedtime procrastinators: A direct observational study. Family Practice, 37(6), 779–784.