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RN to BSN: Parenthetical References

A guide for new RN to BSN students with comprehensive survival information.

Printable PDF Guide to In-Text Citations

In-Text/Parenthetical Citations

In-text citations, or parenthetical citations, are those that are inside the running text, or narrative of your text, and act as pointers to the more complete reference list at the end of the paper. In-text citations can follow very different rules than citations found in the reference list, so it’s important to place them in separate mental compartments.

The in-text citation almost always needs the author, year, and page(s).  The basic template looks like this for quotations:"There is a space after p. and pp."

(Author, year, p. x)

(Author, year, pp. xx-xx)

Notice that the year always follows the author, and the page number(s) is always at the end. Number of authors and number of times cited is key to understand APA in-text "Year always follows the author(s) whether in running or in-text citation."citations.

One Author

Research by Garcia (2017) found blah (p. 25).

Research found blah (Garcia, 2017, p. 25).

Notice that the year always follows the author, and the page number(s) is always at the end.

Number of authors and number of times cited is key to understanding APA in-text citations.


Two Authors "Use and in the running text, but use the ampersand (&) inside parentheses."

Garcia and Bartle (2017) found blah (p. 25).

Research found blah (Garcia & Bartle, 2017, p. 25).

 

Three, Four, and Five Authors—First Time Order matters Always cite the last names in the order they appear on the source

Garcia, Bartle, Sorrell, and Singleton (2017) found blah (p. 25).

Garcia, Bartle, Sorrell, and Singleton (2017) found “blah” (p. 25).

Research found blah (Garcia, Bartle, Sorrell, & Singleton, 2017, p. 25).

Three, Four, and Five Authors—Second+ Time Et al. is an abbreviation of a Latin phrase that means 'and others.'

Garcia et al. (2017) found blah (p. 25).

Research found blah (Garcia et al., 2017, p. 25).

Six or More Authors

Garcia et al. (2017) found blah (p. 25).

Research found blah (Garcia et al., 2017, p. 25).

Research found “blah” (Garcia et al., 2017, p. 25).

No Author"This is completely different from citation in bibliographies"

Research found blah (Title of Article in Quotation Marks and Title Case,” 2017)

Research found blah (Title of Book in Italics and Title Case, 2017)

In “Title of Article in Quotation Marks and Title Case” (2017)

In Title of Book in Italics and Title Case (2017)

Multiple SourcesText repeated below

Several studies (Lowe, 2015; Mancha, 2007; Smith & Jones; 1993) have found blah.

In a multiple sources, in-text citation, order the different citations alphabetically as they appear in the reference list, so the reader can find them easily. Each is separated by a semi-colon.

Same Author/Same Year/Different Works

Research found (Garcia, 1981a)

Garcia (1981b) found

In your reference list, these would look like:

Green box reads: Order same author and same year alphabetically by title in the bibliography.

Garcia, C. (1981a). Article title.   [other article citation information].

Garcia, C. (1981b). Book title.   [other book citation information].

Citing Someone Who is Being Cited by Someone

"Rule: Only cite in your bibliography that which you have read and used yourself."

Petry (as cited in Quarton, 2017) found that

Citing from an Abstract

This is significant for the reference list but not for in-text citations.

Big Quotations/Small Quotations

If you have a direct quotation that is less than 40 words, blend the quotation smoothly into your writing and use quotation marks.  If the quotation is 40 words or more, place it in a free-standing, indented text block, do not use quotation marks, and do maintain double spacing. End with a period, then place the in-text citation.

Garcia’s (2017) work found that

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis dolor nunc, eleifend nec placerat vel, rhoncus et sem. Fusce ullamcorper scelerisque libero, nec eleifend felis tristique vitae. Fusce varius luctus nisi, ut mattis ligula. Nam a tincidunt magna, vitae volutpat mauris. elit. (p. 215)

Direct Quotation or Paraphrase?

Any text that you are quoting exactly from the original should be enclosed in quotation marks, and the in-text citation should include a page number.

If you are not quoting exactly, but are still closely paraphrasing, you do not need to use quotation marks, but you do still need to include a page number. 

If you are making a very general reference to the overall subject of an article/chapter, then you do not need quotation marks and you also do not need a page number. Examples of this are common in the introduction to research articles:

There have been several areas of investigation, including measures of disposition (Zhang, 2000; Garcia & Smith, 2009), measures of decision-making (Lejuez, Simmons, Aklin, Daughters, & Dvir, 2004; Macapagal & Janssen, 2011), and measures of impulsivity (Lee, 2014).