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Ancient History Research: Chicago Style

This guide is designed to assist students in their research of ancient history. It covers finding resources available from the Pfau Library, including, encyclopedias, articles, books, primary resources, images, and videos.

Supplemental Files

Tips Before Turning It In

Before submitting your paper to the instructor, be sure to review these tips and make corrections to your reference list.

  • If your instructor’s preferred style differs from this suggested style, always follow your instructor’s directions.

  • Chicago uses title case for everything and uses the complete name of the author as provided by the item.

  • First notes have most elements separated by commas; bibliographies have most elements separated by periods.

  • Use a comma between the volume and issue no. But don't use a comma if there is no issue number.

  • All references in bibliographies are single spaced, but with a space between each citation.

  • Do not indent the first line in each bibliographic citation, but indent all the following lines (a hanging indent/Ctrl+T).

  • Continue page numbering into the bibliography.

  • Put quotation marks around article titles.

  • Brief titles of articles or books remove a, an, and the if it is the first word in the title.

  • Brief titles of articles or books are four or fewer words in length.

  • Italicize journal and book titles.

  • For essay in an edited book, the “in” the first note is lowercase, while the “in” in the bibliography is title case.

  • For four or more authors, use Firstname Lastname et al. in first and second note.

  • In the bibliography, for more than 10 authors, cite the first seven in order listed and follow with et al.

  • For online materials, include a DOI or persistent URL, or name the database.

  • Months are spelled out rather than abbreviated.

  • End the citation with a period even if it ends in a URL or DOI.

  • The numbered note in the running text is superscript with no period, but the matching numbered note itself is full sized and is followed by a period.

  • Each note is indented on the first line, while the each bibliography entry is a hanging indent. 

  • Each note is single-spaced with a blank line between each entry. 

  • There should never be more than one superscripted note number at a time, though the note itself can contain more than one citation.

  • If a URL or DOI or permalink is long, you may break it  after the colon or double slash, OR before a single slash, tilde, period, comma, hyphen, underline, question mark, number sign, percent symbol OR before or after  an equals sign or an ampersand. (14.18)

For More Information

For more detailed information and examples, please see:

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.

Z253 .U69 2017

held at the Reserve Desk and the Reference Desk. Chapter 14 (pp. 741-890) relates to Chicago’s NB format.

Article (two authors)

Citation Type Example

First note

         #. Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Title of Article in Title Case and with Quotation Marks, Name of Journal in Italics and Title Case volume#, no. x (Month or Season yyyy): p#, https://doi.

        1. Brent Singleton and Eva Sorrell, “Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Muslim Converts in Late Victorian Liverpool,” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 37, no. 1 (January 2017): 10,


Second+ (short) note

       #. Lastname and Lastname, "Brief Title of Article in Title Case with Quotation Marks," p#.

       2. Singleton and Sorrell, “Hate Crimes and Discrimination,” 13.



Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. "Title of Article in Title Case in
       Quotation Marks." Journal/Magazine Name in Title Case and Italics
       volume#, no. issue# (Month or Season yyyy): p#-p#. doi:DOI OR http://

Singleton, Brent, and Eva Sorrell. "Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against
       Muslim Converts in Late Victorian Liverpool." Journal of Muslim Minority
       Affairs 37, no. 1 (January 2017): 1-13.


Book (one author)

Citation Type Example

First note

       #. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Where: Publisher, yyyy), pp-pp.

       3. Lisa BartleBest Book of Children’s Literature: An Introduction (San Bernardino: Academic Press, 2017), 22-23.


Second+ note

       #. Lastname, Brief Title of Book, p.

       4. BartleBest Book of Children’s, 27.



Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Where: Publisher, yyyy.

Bartle, Lisa. Best Book of Children's Literature: An Introduction.
       San Bernardino: Academic Press, 2017.

Essay Acting Like a Chapter in an Edited Book (Three authors + editor)

Citation Type Example

First note

       #. Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname, “Title of Essay or Chapter in Title Case with Quotation Marks,” in Title of Book in Italics and Title Case, ed. Firstname Lastname (Where: Publisher, yyyy), p.

       5. Frederick X. Gibbons, Jose Gould, and Sue Boney McCoy, “Self-Perception and Self-Deception: The Role of Attention in Suggestibility Processes,” in Human Suggestibility: Advances in Theory, Research, and Application, ed. John F. Schumaker (New York: Routledge, 1991), 205.


Second+ note

       #. Lastname, “Brief Title of Essay,” p.

       6. Gibbons, Gould, and McCoy, “Self-Perception and Self-Deception,” 203.



Lastname, Firstname, Firstname Lastname, and Firstname Lastname. . “Title of
        Essay or Chapter in Title Case with Quotation Marks," In Title of Book in

       Italics and Title Case, edited by Firstname Lastname, pp-pp.  Where:
       Publisher, YYYY.

Gibbons, Frederick X., Jose Gould, and Sue Boney McCoy. “Self-Perception and
       Self-Deception: The Role of Attention in Suggestibility Processes,” In Human
       Suggestibility: Advances in Theory, Research, and Application
, edited by John
       F. Schumaker, 201-16. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Web Page

Citation Type Example

Long note

       #. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Web Site If Present, updated [or accessed] Month dd, yyyy.

       5. Lisa R. Bartle, "Explanation of Awards," Database of Award-Winning Children's, Literature, updated April 17, 2020.

Short note

      #. Lastname, ”Brief Title of Page.” 

       5. Bartle, "Explanation of Awards."


Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page in Title Case." Web Site If Present.
       Updated [or Accessed] Month dd, yyyy.

Bartle, Lisa R. "Explanation of Awards." Database of Award-Winning Children's
       Literature. Updated April 13, 2020.


YouTube Video

Citing a YouTube video or other similar source, starts with the same pieces as previous examples. You need author, date, title, source (YouTube), and URL.

Citation Type Example





Lastname, Firstname. YYYY. "Title of Video in Quotation Marks and 

     Title Case." YouTube. Month date, YYYY. 

     http://URL here.

Bartle, Lisa. 2017. "ULMS Alma Analytics Lesson 01 Introducing Out of the

       Box Searches." YouTube. March 20, 2017.

First Note

                   1. Lisa Bartle,  "ULMS Alma Analytics Lesson 01 Introducing Out

of the Box Searches," YouTube (March 20, 2017),


Second, Short Note

                   2. Bartle,  "ULMS Alma Analytics Lesson."


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Brent Singleton
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John M. Pfau Library
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San Bernardino CA, 92407-2318

Repeating Authors in the Notes or the Bibliography

In the bibliography, if an author has two or more entries in a row, you may type six (6) hyphens in place of the name. Alphabetize the entries by title.

Bartle, Lisa. Libraries: A Lifetime of Fun. San Bernardino: Jollytimes Press, 2017.

------. Now, More About Libraries. Hemet: Redlands University Press, 2017.

Ibid. is no longer encouraged by the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. However, it still provides rules for its use (14.34). Please consult with your instructor.

Ibidem is Latin for "in the same place." Ibid. is the abbreviation we use. Only the page may vary. Examples:

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 24.